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Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which cover the conversion of light into electricity, using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effects.

It consists of an arrangement of several components, including solar panels to absorb and directly convert sunlight into electricity, a solar inverter to change the electric current from DC to AC, as well as mounting, cabling and other electrical accessories.

A typical photovoltaic employs solar panels, each comprising a number of solar cells, which generate electrical power. PV installations may be ground-mounted, rooftop-mounted or wall-mounted. The mount can be fixed, or use a solar tracker to follow the sun across the sky.

Solar PV has specific advantages as an energy source: once installed, its operation generates no pollution and no greenhouse gas emissions.

PV systems have the major disadvantages that the power output is depending on direct sunlight, so about 10-25% is lost if a trucking system is not used, since the cell will not be directly facing the sun at all times. Dust, clouds and other things in the atmosphere also diminish the power output.

Nowadays, most PV systems are grid-connected, while stand alone (off-grid) systems only account for a small portion of the market.

PV installations can operate for 100 years or even more, with little maintenance or intervention after their set-up, so after the initial cost of building any solar power plant, operating costs are extremely low compared to existing power technologies.

More than 100 countries now use solar PV.

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About LED...
    LED Lighting Technology, is the latest technology in energy saving lighting.
    LED (Light Emitting Diode) is a semi conductor device that converts electricity into the light.
    LED lighting have low energy consumption, long life durability and is much more economical than the traditional lighting.
    LEDs were first invented in Russia by Oleg Losev in 1927, but the first production has started on October 1962. Firstly can emit only faint red light, but in the last 10 years technological advances of the modern LEDs can give us visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, such as high – brightness light at various wavelengths can give.
    The first high-brightness blue LED was demonstrated by Shuji Nakamura of Nichia Corporation in 1994. The existence of blue LEDs and high-efficiency LEDs quickly led to develop of the first white LED, which employed a phosphor coating to mix down-converted yellow light with blue to produce light that appears white.
    Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Nakamura were later awarded the 2014 Nobel prize in physics for the invention of the blue LED.
    When a light emitting diode is switched on electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device releasing the energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. An LED is small in area – less than 1 mm2.
    LEDs have many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer life time, improved physical robustness, smaller size, and faster switching. Moreover LED lights and luminaries is not contain in the structure such as mercury, heavy materials and halogen gasses.
    Working life and impact resistant thanks to the maintenance – free LED lighting products, especially its ideal for intervene in difficult areas like a perfect solution.
    LED light source durable, long lasting and energy efficient. It saves over 80% of the energy efficiency compared to the other lighting systems and does not need maintenance. They are completely safe to shock and vibration.
    50.000 – 100.000 life working hours and that means fairly have long life durability.
    LEDs create natural light. They does not damage to health as not emit UV.
    LEDs have a wide range of areas. Having a wide assortment of LED strips, rods, light bulbs, spot lights, LED tubes and many other different forms and functions.

    Efficiency: LEDs emit more lumens per watt than incandescent light bulbs.The efficiency of LED lighting fixtures is not affected by shape and size, unlike fluorescent light bulbs or tubes.
    Color: LEDs can emit light of an intended color without using any color filters as traditional lighting methods need. This is more efficient and can lower initial costs.
    Size: LEDs can be very small (smaller than 2 mm2) and are easily attached to printed circuit boards.
    On/Off time: LEDs light up very quickly. A typical red indicator LED will achieve full brightness in under a microsecond.LEDs used in communications devices can have even faster response times.
    Cycling: LEDs are ideal for uses subject to frequent on-off cycling, unlike incandescent and fluorescent lamps that fail faster when cycled often, or High-intensity discharge lamps (HID lamps) that require a long time before restarting.
    Dimming: LEDs can very easily be dimmed either by pulse-width modulation or lowering the forward current. This pulse-width modulation is why LED lights, particularly headlights on cars, when viewed on camera or by some people, appear to be flashing or flickering. This is a type of stroboscopic effect.
    Cool light: In contrast to most light sources, LEDs radiate very little heat in the form of IR that can cause damage to sensitive objects or fabrics. Wasted energy is dispersed as heat through the base of the LED.
    Slow failure: LEDs mostly fail by dimming over time, rather than the abrupt failure of incandescent bulbs.
    Lifetime: LEDs can have a relatively long useful life. One report estimates 35,000 to 100,000 hours of useful life, though time to complete failure may be longer. Fluorescent tubes typically are rated at about 5,000 to 10,000 hours, depending partly on the conditions of use, and incandescent light bulbs at 1,000 to 2,000 hours. Several demonstrations have shown that reduced maintenance costs from this extended lifetime, rather than energy savings, is the primary factor in determining the payback period for an LED product.
    Shock resistance: LEDs, being solid-state components, are difficult to damage with external shock, unlike fluorescent and incandescent bulbs, which are fragile.
    Focus: The solid package of the LED can be designed to focus its light. Incandescent and fluorescent sources often require an external reflector to collect light and direct it in a usable manner. For larger LED packages total internal reflection (TIR) lenses are often used to the same effect. However, when large quantities of light are needed many light sources are usually deployed, which are difficult to focus towards the same target.
    General-purpose lighting needs white light. LEDs emit light in a very narrow band of wavelengths, emitting light of a color characteristic of the energy of the semiconductor material used to make the LED. To emit white light from LEDs requires either mixing light from red, green, and blue LEDs, or using a phosphor to convert some of the light to other colors.
    The first method is RGB which uses multiple LED chips, each emitting a different wavelength, in close proximity to generate white light. This allows the intensity of each LED to be adjusted to change the overall color.
    The second method uses LEDs in conjunction with a phosphor. The CRI (color rendering index) value can range from less than 70 to over 90, and color temperatures in the range of 2700 - 7000 K.
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